Every year on 26th day of January, we celebrate our Nation’s Republic day. We are always ready and excited on this day to heist the flag, proudly stand and recite our National Anthem. But it is a fact that many of us don’t know the significance of this day. Being a citizen of India we should know the history of our Nation, because it is said that: “One, who doesn’t know their history, can’t create history”
On this day i.e. on 26th day of January 1950 our Independent India adopted the Constitution and came into force. After the Independence on 15th August 1947 our citizens were just the ‘Public’ of India but after the adoption and enactment of the Constitution, on 26th January 1950 we were known as ‘Re-Public’. Our Constitution has a history of its own. Our leaders wanted a Constitution of own.
On February 20, 1947, the British Prime minister, Clement Atlee declared that the British rule in India would end by June 30, 1947. After which the power would be transferred into the responsible hands of India. No sooner that, Constituent assembly came into act. The Constituent assembly wanted our Constitution not to be merely a bundle of law and polity but a book which should be the driving force for the Socio-economic reformation and development, of each and every element within India’s Boundary.
Hence, the Constituent assembly was formed which was to be partly elected and partly nominated body. Moreover, the members were to be indirectly elected by members of provincial assemblies, who themselves were elected on a limited franchise. The Constituent assembly was not directly elected by people of India on the basis of Adult franchise.
The Constituent assembly appointed a number of committees to deal with different tasks on Constitution making. Among these committees the most important was the Drafting committee, which was set up on August 29th on 1947. It was the committee which was entrusted with the task of preparing draft of the Constitution. It consisted of seven members:
1. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (Chairman)
2. N. GopalswamyAyyangar
4. Dr. K. M. Munshi
5. Syed Mohammad Saadullah
6. N. MadhavaRao
7. T. T. Krishnamachri
Since, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting committee, it was his duty to read and discuss each and every draft clause by clause in the Constituent assembly. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar studied over 60 Constitutions of various countries. Whatever questions which were asked to him during the reading of draft, he would have to study those and answer them. Since, He was from a backward community; he laid down his work on the basis of social equity, fraternity and integrity which is the backbone of the Constitution.
He was very clear in the mind that political justice was meaningless without economic justice. In our society ridden with religious, caste and creed discriminations, even economic justice was not enough unless it was coupled with social justice. He also stressed nationalization of industry and land.
Comprising of 395 articles and 8 schedules was the length of our Constitution it took 2 years, 11 months and 17 days for the completion of our Constitution. The whole credit for the completion of the Constitution in an incredibly goes to Dr. Ambedkar. He worked for 18-20 hours per day during the drafting work.
It took 4 months for America to prepare Constitution of only 7 articles. Canada took 2 years and 5 months for 147 articles and Australia took 1 year for 153 articles. Comparatively completing 395 articles in 2 years, 11 months and 17 days is quite small period, isn’t it? The work which started on 25th August 1947 ended on 26th November 1949. On 26th November 1949, Dr. Rajendra Prasad signed our Constitution and hence we adopted our Constitution. Hence, India became an Independent Nation in all aspects.
One of the colleagues from the drafting committee, Shri. T. T. Krishnamachri said in the assembly, “President, Sir I am one of those in the house who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar very carefully. I am aware of the amount of work and enthusiasm that he has brought to bear on the work of drafting this Constitution. The house is quite aware that you nominated the 7 members; one had resigned from the house and was replaced. One died and was not replaced. One was away in America and his place was not filled up and another person was engaged in state affairs and there was a void to that extent. One or two people were for away from Delhi. So it happened ultimately that all the burden of the drafting task in a manner like, this was not given to committee as a whole and was performed totally by Dr. Ambedkar and he completed it with excellence and hence he owes a great respect and honor from us.”
Dr. Rajendra Prasad said that. “Even though suffering from illness and having weak health he took intense efforts with his wisdom and due to his efforts his works has found enlightenment.”
India’s Ex-President Shri. C. R. Venkatraman says “Dr. Ambedkar studied and thought of each and every element for the new democracy which included future thoughts too.”
Dr. Payal wrote “Ambedkar was a composition of intelligence, wisdom, imagination scholar, good logic and large experience. Anyone who would raise a doubt or question about any article in the assembly the answer would be so clear and beautifully explained that the dark clouds of queries and doubts would disappear then and there.”
Today in present era, we find many countries fighting, with monarch system or underwent armed rebellion. Those Nations always comment on our Constitution, the structure and the law is so strong that neither it can be captured by internal armed rebellion nor any external enemy. This indestructible structure of our Constitution was sculptured by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar who is called the‘Architecture of the Constitution’.
Whenever our judiciary defines and redefines the object and definition of the law at that time Dr. BabasahebAmbedkar’s word are the directional routes for the judiciary. Our Constitution guarantees security to the national integrity and common civilian’s welfare and development. And if we want to continue to these we would have to conserve the structure and inspiration of the Constitution, then we will have seriously act and think over Dr. Ambedkar’s thoughts.
“He is not only the father of Constitution, but also he is the father of Modern India” – Columbia University
“Anything that can be taken from India is the Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Constitution” – Nelson Mandela
Sumedh Yeshwant Bhandare, Aurangabad
– Jaipal Gaikwad, Sub Editor at Sakal Media Group